Environmental Software and Modelling Group




Computer Science School 
Technical University of Madrid


Graduation Projects

Research Projects

Graduation Projects:

- 1.- Analysis and classification of multiespectral images from Landsat satellite. Author: H. Madrona Catalá, 1994. Director: Prof. R. San José. (Prof. S. Ormeño provided additional expert support).

- 2.- Tools and methodologies to classify multiespectral images from satellites. Author: M. P. Castillo, 1994. Director: Prof. R. San José. (Prof. S. Ormeño provided additional expert support).

- 3.- Object oriented programming and environment. Author: L. Reina, 1995. Director:Prof. R. San José.

- 4.- REMO: a software tool to classify images from Landsat-5 satellite to obtain landuse types for mesoscale air quality models. Author: J.M. Hernandez Diaz, 1996. Director: Prof. R. San José. (Prof. S. Ormeño provided additional expert support).

- 5.- EMIMA: a software tool to produce anthorpogenic and biogenic emissions with high spatial (250 m) and temporal resolution (30'): Application over Madrid domain (80 x 100 km), 1996. Author: M.A. Sanz Espinosa. Director:Prof. R. San José.

- 6.- Fundamentals and applications of the numerical mesoscale air quality models in urban areas, 1997. Author: J.F. Prieto. Director: Prof. R. San José.

- 7.- Advanced study of a biogenic emission model for air quality study over the Madrid Community. December,  1997. Author:Susana García Iglesias. Director: Prof. R. San José.

- 8.- Study of the impact of biogenic emissions in the air concentrations of tropospheric ozone. December, 1997. Author: Tomás Briceño Fernández. Director: Prof.- R. San José.

- 9.- Adaptation of the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5; Penn State University and National Center for Atmospheric Research) at a CRAY-YMP platform (CESCA, Catalunya, Spain). June, 1998. Author:Rubén Pérez Gómez, Director: Prof. R. San José. (Click here to see an Abstract of the project).

-10.- Fundamentals and applications of the ISCST3 Gaussian model to simulate the transport of pollutants. November, 1998. Author:Alvaro Romero Moral. Director:Prof. R. San José. (Click here to see an Abstract of the project).

-11.- Sensitivity analysis and validation of an advanced biogenic emission model (BIOEMI 2.0). November, 1998. Author:Mónica Rollán Galindo, Director:Prof.- R. San José. (Click here to see an Abstract of the project).

-12.- Development and application of a Lagrangian particulate model: LAGMO. November, 1999. Author: Juan Carlos Caño Matesanz. Director: Prof.- R. San José. (Click here to see an Abstract of the project).

-13.- Fundamentals and applications of dry deposition fluxes by using fast instrumentation. December, 1998. Author:José Jesús Rivera Cortés. Director:Prof.- R. San José. (Click here to see an Abstract of the project).

-14.- Fundamentals and applications of dry deposition fluxes by using the gradient method. December, 1998.
Author: Cesar Augusto Gil Bueno. Director: Prof.- R. San José. (Click hereto see an Abstract of the project).

-15.- Integration of an atmospheric dispersion analytical model (ISCST3) into the mesoscale forecasting air quality model (ANA). June, 1999. Author: Luz Divina Pedraza Camacho. Director: Prof.-R. San José (Click here  see an Abstract of the project).

-16.- Advanced operational modelling system for air quality forecasting (OPANA). July, 1999. Author: Miguel Angel Rodriguez Sánchez-Crespo. Director: Prof.-R. San José (Click here to see an Abstract of the project).

-17.- On-line integration of an atmospheric emission model over an air quality forecasting system. July, 1999. Author: Carlos Franco Sánchez. Director: Prof.-R. San José. (Click here to see an Abstract of the project).

-18.- INTERNET operational tool for the MM5 (PSU/NCAR) meteorological over the Iberian Peninsula and Europe: Application to the air quality model CAMx (Environ Co.)Author: Juan Luis Pérez Camaño. Director: Prof.-R. San José. (Click here to see an Abstract of the project).

- 19.- Sensitivity analysis and validations of a forecasting air quality model (OPANA). Author: María del Carmen Ramos Delgado. Director: Prof.-Dr. R. San José. (Click here to see an Abstract of the project).

- 20.- Graphic comparation tool: Aplication to RSM meteorological model. Author: Ricardo Suárez Domínguez. Director: Prof.-Dr. R. San José. (Click here to see an Abstract of the project).


Research Projects

The Environmental Software and Modelling Group has been involved in several different projects funded by the Spanish Reseach Council (CICYT), The Madrid Regional Government and the European Union. In addition to these projects, several other contracts have been performed with private companies who are involved in the Environmental Business. The main EU projects where the Laboratory has been involved are: SREMP (1993-1996), EXAMINE (1994-1997) and MEDFLUX (1996-1998), (DGXII, EU) which are related to measuring deposition fluxes in Mediterranean Areas. The EMMA project (DGXIII, Telematics for Environment, 1996-1998) whih is related to Short Term Forecasting (24-48 h) for regional and urban areas. The operational model EMMA has been developed to be applied over Madrid region. Other projects are related to biogenic emission modelling. An important biogenic emission model (BIOEMI, (1997-1998)) has been developed for the Madrid Community. The model takes into account the isoprene, monoterpene, nitrogen oxides for the Madrid Regional Area. Satellite information and most updated emission algortihms are used (Steinbrech et al. (1998)).

The laboratory has developed a visual software interface (based on Visual Basic languaje) for using the ISCST3 model (EPA, USA). The software was developed under a contract with SICE S.A. The system can be seen in the Graduation Project N. 10. The system was applied to Repsol in A Coruña (Spain) and Cementos Lemona (Vizcaya, Spain).

An emission model (anthropogenic and biogenic emissions) EMIMA (1994-1996) has been also developed (we are currently developing the 3.0 version which includes on-line emissions which means that the temperature and PAR -photosintetic active radiation- are taken from the meteorological model instead of tabulated meteorological information); the laboratory has also developed a landuse classifier (REMO) for Air Quality models which takes raw data from LANDSAT-V satellite images. Currently the landuse classifier obtains 14 landuse types: Caduceous forest, Perenneal forest, Mixed forest, olive, garden, bush, vineyard, fruit, pasture, rice, unirrigated, water, urban, suburban.

A especific version of the EMMA model was applied over Asturias (Spain). Click here to see a Power Point description of the application.

The Laboratory has been working with the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model developed in the Pennsylvania Statte University and NCAR (USA). This complex non-hydrostatic meteorological model is intended (expected to be ready on July'98) to be incorporated to the Air Quality System (ANA) to provide updated forecasted meteorological information for larger areas than the already existing meteorological model in ANA (which is limited to 400-500 km domains). The laboratory is also using the Urban Airshed Model (UAM, EPA, USA) which is intended (expected to be ready on September, 98) to be linked to MM5 for running air quality simulations over Europe and the Iberian Peninsula.

In addition, works with the NCEP T61 operational model are currently developing in order to use this meteorological information for updating the meteorological boundary conditions in the ANA (Madrid) model. Data assimilation works are also being done by using kriging techniques for the Madrid Community and Metropolitan air pollution networks whcih are finally assimilated to the model by using ACS techniques (UK Meteorological Office). These exercises are expeted to improve significatively the air pollution forecasting results particulary for urban and regional areas.

Since March, 1999 the Laboratory is using the RSM model (global and regional spectral model) to obtain operational weather forecasts for the Iberian Peninsula (click here). The Laboratory is also working with the CAMx model (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions, Ver 2.00) developed by ENVIRON International Corporation, California, USA, December 1998. Research is currently done on the linking on-line the CAMx model to REMEST model (based on MEMO and MM5) in addition to RSM model. Expected results will provide on-line forecasts for European and Iberian Peninsula domains through the Internet services. In addition to this, faster chemistry used in CAMx will allow to implement more especenarios in EDSS tool

GIS based version of Emission Model (EMIMO): The use of the GRASS GIS software to be integrated into the emission model (EMIMO) will allow to select interactively emission escenarios to be used into the EDSS platform. (Expected, summer, 2000)

The laboratory is currently involved in applying the EMMA model (Version 1998 of the OPANA model) over the city of Quito (Ecuador) as a subcontractor of SICE S.A.into a project funded by the World Bank.

OPANA model currently is capable to be used over any location in the world since the Laboratory is using the GTOPO altimetry, USGS landuse database, JAVA software to download on real-time the initial vertical meteorological soundings, air quality concentrations and finally EMIMO model to provide the emission data base by using GRASS with the Digital Chart of the World Data Base.

Models, tools and plans:

ANA MODEL (1994-).- The laboratory has developed an Air Quality System (ANA) which includes: a mesoscale non-hydrostatic meteorological transport Eulerian model (REMEST) (This model is based on the 1989 version of MEMO model developed in the University of Karlsruhe, Germany), the model solves the Navier-Stokes equations in diagnostic and prognostic modes and because of the non-hydrostatic capabilities (three dimensional solving) it is able to simulate wind, temperature and humidity flows in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Typical applications over Madrid domain are made by using 80 x 100 x 6 km with 2 km spatial resolution although operational versions are run over 10 km spatial resolution with 1 km in the nested grd (Madrid Metropolitan Area); a chemical model (CHEMA) which is based on the implicit scheme developed by M. Jacobson (University of Standford, USA), the mathematical solver has been typically applied with the well-known CBM-IV chemical mechanism (33 organic species).

The CHEMA model is mainly used for predictions of secondary pollutants such as ozone and PAN (peroxyacetnitrate) -in addition to the classical inorganic species such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. An emission model (EMIMA) which has two options: ON-line and OFF-line mode; the ON-line mode includes the parameterization of the emission factores based on the prognostic meteorological variables from REMEST. The OFF-line mode takes the meteorological variables from typical scenarios of the area based on meteorological historical data bases.

The EMIMA model includes anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The biogenic emissions are obtained based on Steinbrech (1998) emission algorithms for monoterpenes and isoprenes. The biogenic module (BIOEMI) is able to run independently under Visual Basic 4.0 software. The biogenic emissions are also strongly dependent on the landuse classification. The laboratory has developed a software tool (REMO) which is able to read the LANDSAT-V spectral band information and to perform an automatic landuse classification (non supervised) for environmental applications (ANA).

The laboratory is developing an environmental pre-processor (ENPROC) which is able to use the meteorological and air pollution monitoring networks to iniaitliza and to assimilate this information into the non-forecasting period of the ANA simulation (which is usually set to the first 24 hours). The assimilation of the meteorological and, most important, the air pollution monitoring information is a key module to improve significatively the short-term predictions for a mesoscale area. The assimilation package is managing also the meteorological information provided by the NCEP (USA) data in order to update regulary the meteorological boundary conditions. The air pollution monitoring information is kriged over the domain as a first step before applying the nudging processes.

The ENPROC module is also capable to use RASS/SODAR information, two or more level meteorological towers, one-level meteorological tower (10 m) or airport vertical soundings to inicialize the model. The different sub-modules are incorporated as options to the user. The ANA air quality system also includes a Gaussian model (GAUSMO) based on the ISCT3 EPA model in order to study the environmental impact over the grid cells. This impact is quite important since the REMEST model is unable to simulate detail information inside the grid cells.

The GAUSMO model is mainly applied over single industrial sources. An important application is also made over the user pre-selected cells (when running the Eulerian system) for knowing the impact of the traffic in highway and road surrounding areas. The ANA model also includes a Lagrangian transport particle model (LAGMO) which has been developed for single, line, area and volume sources. The model is incorporated into the ANA system in order to simulate the particle matter (PM) concentrations. The model is also usefull to run emission/receptor simulations in order to identify the sources of the air concentrations (under Eulerian mode, the variational methods are much more complex to be applied). The ANA system is managed by a friendly-user interface which has been developed by using the tcl/tk (UNIX) tool. The ANA model has been requested to be incorporated to the list of Model Documentation System of European Topic Center on Air Quality ETC/AQ

EMMA PROJECT (1996-1998).- The EMMA model has been developed under the umbrella of the EMMA DGXIII project. The Technical University of Madrid was an associated partner of the project with the Madrid Community and Madrid City Council. The SICE S.A.company was the spanish partner of the project. See EMMA home page for further information. The EMMA model (click here for EMMA Project at this site) is an operational version of ANA model developed for fulfilling the specifications of the EMMA project. In addition, this version was developed to fulfill the operational requirements of the Environmental Offices in Madrid Area. These requirements basically restricted the computer capabilities to Workstation (the reference machine was the IBM/RISC/6000/380, 128 Mb RAM) and the overnight simulation time (about 18-20 hours). The EMMA model fulfills above requirments by using a coarse grid cell for the Regional domain (10 km) and a fine grid (1 km) for the Metropolitan domain (10 x 12 km). Also, intead of 25 layer -which are normally used by the ANA model-, only 15 vertical layers are used (10 layers in the first 600 m above surface).

RSM (regional spectral model)(1999-).- The RSM model was developed by Hann-Ming Henry Juang at National Centre for Environmental Predictions in NOAA (USA). It is a fully numerical mesoscale weather prediction model. In October, 1999 the Laboratory started to provide real-time weather forecasts for the Iberian Peninsula by using on-line services under INTERNET technology. Click here to see the operational weather forecasts.

CASCADE MODEL (1997-1998).- The laboratory is using the following models: GENESIS, and EPA/NCAR global model; MM5, and NCAR mesoscale model; UAM, an EPA model for urban applications (Eulerian transport and chemistry). The UAM model is applied over the Euopean Area with different nesting domains (Spain and Madrid Community). The MM5 model provides meteorological information to feed the UAM model over the different grids. GENESIS model is running only for climate applications. MM5 model is initiated by using NCEP data with 24 and 6 hours time step options. (Click here to see the Graduation project 8 related to this matter).

OPANA model (1998-).- The OPANA model is an operational version  of ANA model and it has been aproved as one of the models into the Model documentation System at the European Topic Centre in Denmark.

EQUAL PROJECT (1998-2000).- The EQUAL project is a European Union project funded by DGXIII and where the UPM (and this laboratory) participates as a subcontrator of the SICE S.A. Company which is also a associated contrator of the Bilbao (Spain) Municipality (contractor). The Laboratory develops a Web version of the OPANA model in order to be applied at Bilbao City Environmental Office and with Leicester City (United Kingdom) Environmental Office. The SATURN application from Leicester Environmental Office provides a spatial and temporal distribution of primary pollutants over theLeicester City domain (and surrounding areas) through the web in on-line mode. This information is used by the OPANA model running in the UPM Laboratory to produce under daily basis the Leicester domain pollution forecasts which are served through the Web to the Internet client. In Bilbao, the SATURN model (traffic model from Leicester City) has provided spatial and temporal vehicle distribution files for Bilbao domain which are used by the OPANA model to produce the Bilbao pollution forecasts through the WEB to be visualized by the Internet client.

DECAIR PROJECT (1999-2002)The DECAIR project is funded by DGXII and into the 4th framework Programme. The project focuses on developing a Web engine to provide to the Internet client peripherical information (input data) for the Air Quality Models (OPANA in the Madrid Area). These input data is mainly landuse and meteorological data to initialize the OPANA (and REGOZON model for Berlin Area) model. Landuse data is obtained in on-line from satellite information (NOAA, LANDSAT, SPOT, etc.) and delivered in the proper format to be used by Air Quality Models.

APNEE PROJECT (2000-2001)The APNEE project is a project funded by DGXIII into the 5th framework Programme which is focusing on the distribution on Air Quality Information by using WAP and WEB GIS technology. The mobile telephone Internet user will receive on-line information on the alarm pollutant episodes which are forecasted for the next 24-48 hours by using OPANA model (for the Madrid area) and for a specific spatial domain. This information will be received automatically through the mobile telephone Internet server.

ENVIRONMENTAL DECISSION SUPPORT SYSTEM (EDSS/OPANA): MULTIPROCESS AND MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY SIMULATION PLATFORM (1999-)This project is focusing on supporting the environmental management decissions by taking into account the air quality forecasts provided by the today's forecasting systems. The impact of different decissions to reduce the air concentrations to keep below the European Union Directives for the different pollutants is study by means of this tool. The system provides information of the best scenario to avoid or reduce the forecasted air concentrations when these values are expected to be over the limits established by the European Union Directives. Different scenarios are considered such as reduced traffic flow during especific periods during the days before the alarm is expected; reduced important point industrial emissions in the area, etc. Click here to see a Power Point presentation of the tool.

TEAP (A TOOL TO EVALUATE THE AIR QUALITY IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS):This project is an EUREKA project approved on October, 2001. UPM (ESMG) has proposed the project and in Spain INDRA is participating with Lithuania (Institute of Physics and Petrol Company) and Greece (Aristotle University and TITAN). The project uses 2nd (OPANA V4.0) and 3rd generation (OPANA 5.0; MM5-CMAQ) of air quality models to obtain the impact of industrial emissions on air concentrations. The software tool runs two simulations in parallel of the model domain where the large industrial plant is located. These simulations are known as ON and OFF respectively (meaning that in OFF simulation the emissions of the industrial plant are switched off). Analysis of differences between both simulations provides a detailed information on the part of air concentrations due to industrial plant emissions in a mesoscale domain. Different industrial load patterns can be simulated simulatenously (one PC per pattern) to analyze different scenarios. The resulting computer cluster can be implemented in ON-LINE mode to offer to industrial manager 24 - 72 hours air quality forecasts with detailed information in space and time of the impact of the industrial emissions of the modelled company.

NOTE.- The models which are shown in this page are under continuous improvement and they are in different development stages. For futher infomation, please contact R. San José

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